NACH OBEN

Dr. Michael M. Kretzer

Kontakt
Raum: IAFO E03/465
Tel.: +49 (0)234 32-19485
Mail: michael.kretzer@rub.de
Sprechzeiten:

nach Vereinbarung

Abteilung: Mobilitaet und Demographischer Wandel

Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter:in

Tätigkeitsbereiche

  • Sub-Sahara Afrika, speziell Südafrika, Malawi, Botswana, Lesotho und die Seychellen
  • Sprachenpolitik und Bildungssysteme in Sub-Sahara Afrika
  • Environmental Education
  • (Virtual) Linguistic Landscape
  • Sprachenpolitik in Gesundheitssystemen
  • Quantitative und Qualitative Methoden der empirischen Sozialforschung
  • Indigene Wissenssysteme (Indigenous Knowledge Systems)

Lebenslauf

Seit 2022

  • Affiliated research fellow University of the Western Cape, UWC, Department of African Language Studies

Seit 09/2020

  • Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter an der Ruhr-Universität Bochum

Seit 2020

  • Honorary Appointment als Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter der Rhodes University, Schools of Languages and Literatures, African Language Section

2019

  • DFG Reisemittel zur Präsentation am DKG an der Christian-Albrechts-Universität in Kiel

04/2018 - 03/2020

  • NRF SARChI Chair Post-Doctoral Research Fellow an der School of African Languages, Rhodes University, South Africa

2018 – 2020

  • NRF SARChI Chair Post-Doctoral Research Fellow School of African Languages, Rhodes University, South Africa

2018

  • T&S Financial Support, Rhodes University, to present at the Sociolinguistics Symposium 22 at the University of Auckland, New Zealand
  • T&S Financial Support, Rhodes University, to present at Society of South African Geographers (SSAG) Conference at University of Free State (UFS), Bloemfontein and QwaQwa, South Africa

01/2018

  • Abschluss der Promotion (Titel: Implementierungspotential der Sprachenpolitik im Bildungssystem Südafrikas)

04/2012 - 03/2017

  • Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Zentrum für Internationale Entwicklungs- und Umweltforschung (ZEU), JLU Gießen

04/2012 – 03/2015

  • DEY-Stipendium (Bistum Limburg)

02/2011 - 07/2011

  • Verwaltungsangestellter bei der Reading Association of South Africa in Johannesburg (RASA)

11/2010 - 07/2011

  • Praktikum bei Molteno Institute for Language and Literacy in Johannesburg

11/2010 – 04/2011

  • PROMOS Stipendium für Praktikumsaufenthalt Südafrika (DAAD)

08/2009 - 09/2009

  • Forschungsaufenthalt in Gauteng (Südafrika) für die Erstellung der Examensarbeit

03/2009

  • Wirtschaftsgeographiestudienreise nach Texas

11/2008 - 06/2010

  • Studentische Hilfskraft am Geographischen Institut der JLU Gießen

07/2008 - 09/2008

  • Praktikum an der Deutschen Schule Pretoria (DSP)

10/2004 - 09/2010

  • Lehramtsstudium für Gymnasien in den Fächern Politik und Wirtschaft, Geschichte und Geographie (Titel der Examensarbeit: Sprachenpolitik und Nation-Building in Südafrika)

 

 


 

Publikationen

 

Mitgliedschaften

  • Gießener Geographische Gesellschaft (GGG)
  • Edinburgh Circle on the Promotion of African Languages (ECPAL)
  • Verband der Geographen an deutschen Hochschulen (VGdH)
  • Alumni Netzwerk Subsahara Afrika e.V.
  • Verein zur Förderung der Entwicklungs- und Umweltforschung e.V.
  • African Language Association of Southern Africa (ALASA)
  • African Studies Association (ASA)
  • GGS Peer Mentoring Gruppe "Empirische Bildungs- und Sozialforschung"
  • Arbeitskreis Subsaharisches Afrika
  • Arbeitskreis Bildungsgeographie
  • Gesellschaft für Angewandte Linguistik (GAL)
  • Global Coalition for Language Rights

Lehre

Lehre an der Rhodes University:

  • Introduction into Research and Methodology (2020)
  • Language Policy and African Sociolinguistics (2020)
  • Introduction into Research Methodology (2019)


Lehre an der Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen

  • Prekäre Staatlichkeiten in Subsahara Afrika (WS 2016/17)
  • Supranationale Organisationen in Sub-Sahara Afrika (SS 2016)
  • Transition in Practice (WS 2015/2016)
  • Sprachen und Sprachenpolitik in Subsahara-Afrika (WS 2015/2016)
  • Praxis der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit in Subsahara-Afrika (mit Dr. Ulrich Weyl) (WS 2014/2015)
  • Entwicklungsprobleme Lateinamerikas (WS 2014/2015)
  • Transition in Practice (WS 2014/2015)
  • Sprachpolitik in Afrika (WS 2014/2015)
  • Transition in Practice (WS 2013/2014)
  • Kultur und Sprachenpolitik in Subsahara Afrika (WS 2012/2013)
  • Transition in Practice (WS 2012/2013)

Reviewing

Peer reviewing (Journals):

  • Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and literary studies (since 2022)
  • SN Social Studies (since 2022)
  • Linguistic Landscape (since 2022)
  • International Journal of Multilingualism (since 2022)
  • International Journal of Bilingualism (since 2021)
  • Linguistics and Education (since 2021)
  • Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies (since 2020)
  • Journal of Multilingual Theories and Practices (since 2020)
  • South African Journal of African Languages (SAJAL) (since 2019)
  • Per Linguam (since 2019)
  • Journal for Language Teaching (JLT) (since 2019)
  • Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus (since 2019)
  • African Education Review (since 2018)

 

Editorial Board:

  • Afrika Süd (since 2021)
  • Journal of Multilingual Theories and Practices (since 2019)

 


Executive Board:

  • MultiLingNet: Scholars investigating Multilingualism (since 2019)

 

Newspaper article

  • Kretzer, Michael M. and Kaschula, R. H. (2019): South African teachers switch languages in class: why policy should follow, The Conversation, https://theconversation.com/south-african-teachers-switch-languages-in-class-why-policy-should-follow-122087.


Interviews

  • Kaschula, R. H. and Kretzer, Michael M. (2019): Multilingual schools, multilingual universities: an interview with Russell Kaschula and Michael Kretzer, https://www.litnet.co.za/multilingual-schools-multilingual-universities-an-interview-with-russell-kaschula-and-michael-kretzer/.
  • Kretzer, Michael M. (2019): SA teachers and code-switching why the policy should change to make this acceptable. Radio-Interview, Podcast available: www.capetalk.co.za/podcasts/144/the-john-maytham-show/244716/sa-teachers-and-code-switching-why-the-policy-should-change-to-make-this-acceptable.
  • Kretzer, Michael M. (2019): Education feature: The importance of mother tongue education, Radio Interview, Podcast available: https://iono.fm/e/744064.

 

Invited keynotes

  • Kretzer, Michael M. (2021): (Hidden) potentials of Linguistic Landscape (LL) in southern Africa: Examples of Schoolscapes in South Africa at the Speaking in Tongues series, WITS university, 24th November 2021.

 

Tagungs- und Konferenzvorträge

2021

  • Kretzer, Michael M., Abdulnabi Ali, Abeer and Stefan Schweiger: „'Dipolasitiki e hohle': The Omnipresence of Plastic Pollution and the Future Generation’s Awareness on Handling the Challenge in Maseru District, Lesotho”, Online Friday 19th November 2021 at the ASA 2021 conference.
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “COVID-19 Pandemic Outbreak, The Vaccination Procedures and Health Crisis Communication in Southern Africa, online Saturday 2nd October 2021 at the INTERFACEing 2021 conference in Taiwan.
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Similar patterns and unique aspects of re-occuring name changes in Africa: The recent case of Kingdom of Eswatini” at the 2021 International Symposium on Place Names, Standardisation and the wealth of place names - aspects of a delicate relationship, Online, 1st October 2021 UFS.
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Linguistic Landscapes (LL) in Southern Africa: Comparative study about Botswana, Lesotho and South Africa” at the ALASA conference at University of Fort Hare, Sunday 26th September 2021.
  • Kowalonek-Janczarek, Monika and Kretzer, Michael M.: „Conceptualizations of literacy education in Polish and South African School Curricula” at the 16th Annual LITASA Conference in Durban & Online, 4 September 2021, University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Linguistic Landscapes (LL) during the 2019 National Election in South Africa” at the 12. Linguistic Landscape (LL) conference, 2 September 2021, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Virtual Linguistic Landscape (VLL) of COVID-19 health information in multilingual Southern Africa” at the International Symposium on Bilingualism ISB13 Conference, Monday, 12 July 2021, University of Warsaw, Poland.
  • Abdulnabi Ali, Abeer, Golbert, Yuliya, Angga Reksa, Fikri, Kretzer Michael M. and Stefan Schweiger: "Participative Solutions for Sustainable Waste Management in Jakarta" at the Jahrestagung der Arbeitskreise Südostasien und Ostasien in der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geographie, Friday, June 25, 2021.
  • Kretzer, Michael M., Schweiger Stefan and Abdulnabi Ali, Abeer: ‘Thuto ea tikoloho’: Analysing the challenge of plastic and its pollution at secondary schools in Maseru District, Lesotho” at the Rethinking Education for Sustainability in an Era of Uncertainty:
  • Opportunities and Challenges – Conference, Tuesday, 22 June 2021, Mauritius Institute of Education, Mauritius.
  • Davis, Emily E., Jeffery, Danielle, Kretzer, Michael M.: „Always on call: Communicating multilingual public health information through social media in Australia”, at the After COVID: Language, Diversity, and Social Justice conference, Saturday, 19th June, 2021, Rice University, USA.
  • Abdulnabi Ali, Abeer, Golbert, Yuliya, Angga Reksa, Fikri, Kretzer Michael M. and Stefan Schweiger: "Transformative Solutions in the Global South: The (hidden) potentials of civil society actors for participative processes addressing sustainable waste management in Jakarta" at the Transformations Conference 2021, Thursday 17th June, 2021.
  • Kretzer, Michael M. and Everlyn Oluoch: “(Hidden) potentials for African Languages through a competency based curriculum (CBC): A comparative study of Kenya and South Africa”, at the WOCAL10 2021, Tuesday 8 June 2021, Leiden University, Belgium.


2020

  • Davis, Emily E., Jeffery, Danielle and Kretzer, Michael M.: “Lost in Translation: Multilingual Public Health Signage during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Australia” at the POSTGRADUATE CONFERENCE ON MULTILINGUALISM Saturday, 10 October 2020, Co-hosted by Multilingualism Research Centre, Macquarie University, and School of Education, University of New South Wales, Australia. (Web-based conference)
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: "Linguistic Landscape (LL) at coastal tourist areas in Eastern Cape, South Africa" at the online conference Multilingualism from Various Perspectives of Applied Linguistics, Friday 23 October 2020, Silesian University of Technology, Poland.


2019

  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Nachhaltigkeit als Thema in den Bildungssystemen in Sub-Sahara Afrika” an der Ruhr-Universität Bochum (31.10.2019).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “(Unused) Potentials of Multimodal Teaching in Multilingual Classrooms in South Africa” at the Multilingual Awareness and Multilingual Practices (MAMP19) Conference at the Thomas Moore University, Antwerp, Belgium (28.10.2019).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Language Policies at schools in increasingly mobile societies: Examples from Eastern Cape, Gauteng, Limpopo and North West” at the DKG at the Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany (28.09.2019).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Teaching in Sub-Saharan Africa: 'How can you teach pupils if you do not use their language?'” at the Postgraduate Conference “Postgraduate Education is a Public Good” at Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa (22.08.2019).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Language Policy and Linguistic Landscapes at schools in South Africa” at the 21st Biennial ALASA International Conference at the University of the Free State (UFS), Bloemfontein, South Africa (08.07.2019).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Science Education (Agriculture) in Malawi using English and its challenges at schools” at the 10th Department of English International Conference at the University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana (20.06.2019).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Hidden and unused potentials of teachers’ covert Language Practices at public schools in Limpopo” at the Multilingual Theories and Practices (MTP19) at Ionian University, Corfu, Greece (09.05.2019).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Bildung und nachhaltige Entwicklung in Sub-Sahara Afrika” am Kulturwissenschaftliches Institut (KWI) Essen, Essen, Germany (02.05.2019).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “(Latent) potentials to incorporate and improve environmental knowledge using African Languages in Agriculture lessons in Malawi” at the International Symposium on Climate Change and the Role of Education at Bishop Grosseteste University, Lincoln, United Kingdom (12.04 - 13.04.2019).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Language Policies in schools in Sub-Saharan Africa and its social consequences” at the MuDD2019 - Multilingualism, Diversity and Democracy Conference at Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden (8.04 – 10.04.2019).


2018

  • Kretzer, Michael M.: "Chances and Obstacles of teaching Science (Agriculture) at Malawian schools considering Indigenous Knowledge (IK) and African Languages" at the Society of South African Geographers (SSAG) Conference at University of Free State (UFS), Bloemfontein and QwaQwa, South Africa (30.9 – 5.10.2018).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “(Unused) potentials of educators’ covert Language Policies at public schools in Limpopo” at the 5th International Conference on Language and Literacy Education at the University of Witwatersrand (WITS) Parktown Campus, Johannesburg, South Africa (17.8 – 19.8.2018).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “”They speak Setswana at home, why teaching it?” – Daily realities of Language Policies in classrooms in Gauteng, Limpopo and North West Province” at the Postgraduate Conference “Postgraduate Education is a Public Good” at Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa (26.7 – 27.7.2018).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “A Comparison of educators smuggling African Languages into classrooms in Gauteng, Limpopo and North West Province” at the 19th Interim Conference of the African Languages Association of Southern Africa Conference and Sintu 7, 7th International Conference on Bantu Languages at the University of Cape Town, South Africa (9.07. – 11.07.2018).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Disruptions and continuities of the educational language policy in Malawi: a case study of the Northern Region” at the 20th International Congress of Linguists at the at the University of Cape Town, South Africa (02.07 – 6.07.2018).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Impact of Usage or Non-Usage of African Languages in education systems in border regions: Case study of Malawi and Zambia” at the Sociolinguistics Symposium 22 at the University of Auckland, New Zealand (27.06 – 30.06.2018).


2017

  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Language practice(s) of pupils minority language(s) at secondary schools in Botswana” at the 16th International Conference on Minority Languages (ICML XVI) at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland (28.08. – 30.08.2017).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Overt language policy and covert language practice(s) at secondary schools in Botswana and South Africa” at the combined CLASA-Multilingualism and Transformation in the Knowledge Age Conference at the Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa (25.06 – 29.06.2017).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Influence of language attitude(s) towards English and indigenous languages: mismatch between the overt language policy and covert language practice(s) at public schools in Botswana and South Africa” at the 43rd African Literature Association (ALA) Annual Conference, “Africa and the World: Literature, Politics, and Global Geographies” at the Yale University in New Haven, USA (14. – 17.06.2017).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Language policy in Malawi: Factors, contexts and consequences” at the International Conference: "Multilingualism in Society, Politics and Education" at the SLI Conference at the Albrecht-Ludwigs University in Freiburg, Germany (16. – 18. 03.2017).


2016

  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Fighting Resource Scarcity: Sustainability in the Education System of Malawi – Case Study of Karonga, Mzimba and Nkhata Bay District” at the 59th African Studies Association (ASA) at the Howard University in Washington, USA (1. – 3.12.2016).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Translanguaging between Setswana and other Indigenous Languages at Secondary Schools in Botswana and North West Province in South Africa” at the Annual meeting of the Arbeitskreises Subsaharisches Afrika (AKSA) at the DGfG at the Goethe University in Frankfurt, Germany (25. – 26.11.2016).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “The usage and appearance of Setswana in public domains: Case study of urban and rural areas in Botswana and South Africa” at the 46th Pozna? Linguistic Meeting (PLM2016) at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Pozna?, Poland (15. – 17.09.2016).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Pitfalls of the implementation of language policy at public secondary schools in Botswana” at the WITS International Language and Literacy Conference (WILLC 2016) at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa (12. – 14.08.2016).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Reciprocal relationship of language attitude, language practice and (covert) language policy (at schools): Case study of selected provinces in Botswana, Malawi and South Africa” at the Molteno Institute for Language and Literacy (MILL) in Johannesburg, South Africa (29.07.2016).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Factors, Chances and Obstacles of education systems for development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Examples from Botswana, Malawi and South Africa” at the Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa (18.07.2016).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: "Patterns of public appearance of indigenous languages in Southern Africa – a case study of Setswana in Botswana and Chichewa and Chitumbuka in Malawi" at the LSSA-SAALA-SAALT Conference at University of Western Cape in Cape Town, South Africa (04. – 07.07.2016).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Multilingual Linguistic Repertoire and Varieties of Code-Switching at Secondary Schools in Botswana: Case Study in Kgatleng, South-East and Southern District” at the 42nd African Literature Association (ALA) Annual Conference, "Justice and Human Dignity in Africa and the African Diaspora" at the Emory University and Kennesaw State University in Atlanta, USA (06. – 09.04.2016).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: "Overt language policy and covert language practices in South African TV channels", at the Cornell University in Ithaca, USA (5.04.2016).


2015

  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Chances & obstacles of language policy within the Malawian education system” at the 4th International Conference Language, Education & Diversity 2015 (LED) at the University of Auckland, New Zealand (23. – 26.11.2015).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: "Areas, contexts and potentials of code-switching at South African schools: case study of the Nguni-and Sotho-Cluster in Gauteng and North West" at the 9th Pan-African Literacy for All & 10th Reading Association of South Africa (RASA) National Literacy Conference at University of Cape Town in Cape Town, South Africa (02. – 05.09.2015).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: "Differences of Language Practice at primary and secondary schools in Gauteng and North West province" at the 3rd International Conference in Academic and Professional Communication at University of Botswana in Gaborone (15. – 17.07.2015).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: "Language Practice and Appearance of African Languages in the South African education system - Case Study at primary and secondary schools in Gauteng Province" at the 18th International Conference of the African Language Association of Southern Africa (ALASA) at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology in Cape Town, South Africa (24. – 26.06.2015).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: "Variations between oral and written Communication at Schools in Gauteng and North West Province: Case study of the use of Sesotho sa Leboa (Sepedi), Sesotho, Setswana and isiZulu at the 41st Annual Conference of the African Literature Association (ALA), at the University of Bayreuth, Germany (03. – 06.06.2015).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: Referent des Projekttages "Nähe und Ferne: Leben, Kultur und Bildung in Sub-Sahara Afrika" am Privatgymnasium Dr. Richter in Kelkheim, Germany (17.04.2015).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: "Scope and Variety of Code-Switching at South African schools" at the International Conference on Bilingualism at the University of Malta in Valletta (23. – 25.03.2015).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: Referent des Projekttages „Nationalstaatsentwicklung und Nationalbewusstsein in Südafrika“ an der Stiftschule St. Johann in Amöneburg, Germany (23.02.2015).


2014

  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Regional differences of Language Practice at Primary and Secondary Schools in North-West - A Case Study of the Use of Setswana and Sesotho” at the 9th Annual Reading Association of South Africa (RASA) Conference “Reading the Change: Changing the Reading: Where are we 20 years after 1994?” at the Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa (12.09. – 14.09.2014).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “The Influence of language practices and attitudes on language policy in the South African education system and their implications on oral and written literature” at the 2nd International Conference: Orature and its Place in Malawian Literature at the Mzuzu University in Mzuzu, Malawi (29.07.2014 – 31.07.2014).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Regional differences of Language Practice at Primary and Secondary Schools in North-West - A Case Study of the Use of Setswana and Sesotho” at the 18th Interim Conference of the African Languages Association of Southern Africa (ALASA) “Reclaiming our Heritage through Language” at Walter Sisulu University in Mthatha, South Africa (30.06. – 02.07.2014).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Effect of Language Attitudes on African Languages within the South African Education system - Case Study of the Use of Setswana in North-West Province” at the Joint LSSA/SAALA/SALT Annual Conference 2014 at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa (24. – 26.06.2014).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: "Language practice in the education system of South Africa – Is there a future for African Language?" at the 6th International Linguistic Landscapes Conference “Hope and Precarity” at the University of the Western Cape, South Africa (9.04. – 11.04.2014).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: "Implementierungspotential der Sprachenpolitik im Bildungssystem Südafrikas - Fallstudie Gauteng, Limpopo und North-West Provinz" im Rahmen des Gießener Geographischen Colloquiums at the Justus-Liebig University Gießen, Germany (13.01.2014).


2013

  • Kretzer, Michael M.: "The effects of Internationalisation for the use of indigenous languages at primary schools in South Africa. Case study in Gauteng and North-West Province" at the 2nd International Arts Conference "The arts and indigenous knowledge systems in a modern(ised) Africa" at the Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) in Pretoria, South Africa (25. – 27.09.2013).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: "Perceptions of educational stakeholders towards the usage of Setswana in educational institutions. Case study in Bojanala and Dr. Kenneth Kaunda District in North-West Province" at the 17th Biennial international conference of the African Language Association of Southern Africa (ALASA) at the University of South Africa (UNISA) in Pretoria, South Africa (17. – 19.07.2013).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: „Impact of the Language Practice and Language Attitude/Ideology for the Implementation of the Language Policy in the Education System in South Africa” at the LSSA/SAALA/SALT Conference “Language: Policy, Planning, Practice and Principles” at the Stellenbosch University, South Africa (01. – 04.07.2013).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: "The influence of language attitude in day to day work at educational institutions in Gauteng and North West Province: The case study of schools, universities and NGOs" at the 7th international conference "Language, literature, theatre and indigenous knowledge" at the University of Botswana in Gaborone (12.– 14.06.2013).
  • Kretzer, Michael M.: "The importance of language attitude regarding First language (L1) based education in South Africa - Case study in Gauteng and North-West Province" at the 14th Norddeutschen Linguistischen Colloquium at the Martin-Luther-University in Halle-Wittenberg, Germany (15. – 17.03.2013).


2012

  • Kretzer, Michael M.: “Inter-dependency of language ideology, language practice and language management at tertiary level in South Africa” at the 2nd Department of African Languages and Literature conference at the University of Botswana in Gaborone (12. – 14.07.2012).